For some reason, there seems to be a recurring theme in almost all my projects: they tend to begin with Z. (Exhibit A:

This is probably something to do with my fascination for The Last Letter In The Dictionary, and by extension, The Last Word. Hence this attempt to collect The Last Word in the Dictionary in as many languages as possible.

Contributors to this page are credited in [square brackets] after the source.

Please note: abbreviations don't count; dictionary subentries are permitted if they are single words. Entries follow the conventional alphabetic sort for the language (e.g. in Norwegian, the last letter of the alphabet is Å).

Last updated: 11th February 2007 -- project closed. Thanks to all who contributed.

Previously updated:
25th May 2004. Now up to 113 languages (plus 22 constructed languages). Another new entry for Norwegian
1st February 2004. New entries for Albanian, Russian and Vietnamese
27th December 2003. New entries for Belarusian, British Sign Language, Bulgarian, Gaelic (Scottish), Hawaiian, Occitan, Slovak, Slovene, Sorbian, Láadan
9th August 2003. New entries for Catalan, Faeroese, Galician, Ndonga, Spanish
18th July 2003. New entry for Spanish
31st December 2002. New entries for Gypsy, Wintu
9th December 2002. New entries for Armenian, Azerbaijani, Greek (Modern), Japanese, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Lithuanian, Tatar, Turkmen, Uzbek, Lojban

Jump to: English * Other natural languages * Constructed languages


zymurgy (the art or science of fermentation) -- Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, Macquarie Encyclopedic Dictionary [D Tse], Webster's Dictionary (1991 edition) [Maarten van Beek]

also: Zyrian (former term for the language Komi) -- New Oxford Dictionary of English, 2001

also: zyxomma (type of dragonfly) -- Collins New English Dictionary 1956 edition

also: zyxt (obsolete Kentish dialect form, 2nd person singular indicative present of See v.) -- Oxford English Dictionary

also: zyzonym (once seen, source forgotten -- can anyone help?)

also: zyzzyva (tropical American weevil) -- American Heritage Dictionary [Muke Tever] (But this looks to my cynical eye like someone has made up the name with the intention of it being the last word in the dictionary. Hmm.); the American Heritage Electronic Dictionary has the genitive plural form: zyzzyvas' [Jeffrey Henning]

also (but surely this is just cheating): zzz (colloq.: a sleep -- from the convention used, esp. by cartoonists, to represent sleep or the sound of snoring) -- Macquarie Australian Dictionary [Tristan McLeay]

Old English: yðworigende (wandering on the waves, wave-wandering (fish)) - A Concise Anglo-Saxon Dictionary by JR Clark Hall [Andrew Smith]

Other Natural Languages

Afrikaans: zyliet (zylite, whatever that is) -- Pharos Groot Woordeboek

Ainu: yupi(hi) (older brother) -- Ainu-English Word List:

Albanian: zhyvelgë (dead/dried leaves) -- Oxford Albanian-English Dictionary [zh as a letter is sorted after z]

Amharic: [postäñña] (postman) -- Amharic-English/English-Amharic Dictionary, A. Zekaria

Armenian: [fssal] (v. puff) -- Hippocrene Concise Armenian Dictionary, D & S Aroutunian

Australian Aboriginal (Queensland): yuwan (black snake) -- Aboriginal Words of Australia, published by A.H. & A.W. Reed Pty Ltd, 1976 [Andrew Smith] Yeah, we know, not very specific about exactly which language. Sorry about that.

Azerbaijani: zülm (oppression) -- Routledge Dictionary of the Turkic Languages

Basque: zuztertu (to sprout, to grow shoots) -- Basque-English, English-Basque Dictionary by Aulestia and White, U. of Nevada Press, 1992 [Thomas Leigh]

Belarusian/Belarusan: [jashche] (still, yet, another, already) -- Gotovets, O. A., Myasnikova, V. V. Belorussko-russkij i russko-belorusskij slovar' (Belarusan-Russian and Russian-Belarusan dictionary) TetraSystems, 2001 [Pavel Iosad]

Breton (Interdialectal): zrodiñ; variant of saotrañ (to sprain, ruin, spoil, soil, sully, dirty, pollute, stain) -- Geriadur ar Brezhoneg a-Vremañ Brezhoneg-Galleg Galleg-Brezhoneg / Dictionnaire du Breton Contemporain Bilingue, 4th edition. Francis Favereau, 1997 [Benjamin Bruch]

Breton (Unifié): zoken (even, moreover) -- Elementary Breton-English & English-Breton Dictionary / Geriadurig Brezhoneg-Saozneg ha Saozneg-Brezhoneg by R. Delaporte, Mouladurioù Hor Yezh, 1995 [Thomas Leigh, Benjamin Bruch]

Breton (Universitaire): zo-mui-kén (all in all, only) -- Lexique Breton-Français et Français-Breton / Geriadur Brezoneg-Galleg ha Galleg-Brezoneg, 27th ed. Laurent Stéphan and Visant Séité, 1993 [Benjamin Bruch]

Breton (Vannetais): zo (is [3rd person singular of the verb boud 'be']) -- Dictionnaire Breton-Français Vannetais. Mériadeg Herrieu, 2001 [Benjamin Bruch]

British Sign Language (BSL): ["both hands held in neutral space in front of body, side by side; the thumb is extended and the fingers tightly curled at the knuckles; palms point down and away from the signer; twist at wrist repeatedly towards the signer"] (dominoes, domino player, play dominoes) -- Dictionary of British Sign Language/English, British Deaf Association, Ed. David Brien, Published by Faber and Faber (BSL notation order)

Bulgarian: [yakhta] (yacht) -- Gaberov English-Bulgarian, Bulgarian English Dictionary, 1999 [Thomas Leigh]

Caribbean Creole: zwazo (bird) -- Hippocrine Concise Creole Dictionary, S. Ovide

Catalan: zwitterió (zwitterion) -- Hiperdiccionari (Enciclopèdia Catalana) [Veronica Lambert Hall]

Cornish (Kemmyn): ywin (yew [trees]), singulative ywinenn (yew [tree]) -- The New Standard Cornish Dictionary / An Gerlyver Kres, Dr Ken George, 1998 [Benjamin Bruch]

Cornish (Modern): zwele (burns, scorches, singes); form of the verb swealan (to burn off surface, scorch, singe) -- A Practical Dictionary of Modern Cornish, Part One: Cornish-English, 2nd edition. R. R. M. Gendall, 1997 [Benjamin Bruch]

Cornish (Unified): ; variant spelling for yey (ice, frost) -- A New Cornish Dictionary / Gerlyver Noweth Kernewek. R. Morton Nance, 1990 [Benjamin Bruch]

Corsican: vutiziu (vow) -- Dizziunariu Corsu-Francese, Éditions DCL, 1998 [Thomas Leigh]

[Serbo-]Croatian: (1. spur tip; 2. top; 3. tip, point; 4. lock, tuft of hair) -- SerboCroatian-English Dictionary by M. Benson, Cambridge U. Press, 1994 [Thomas Leigh]

Czech: (chew, masticate) -- English-Czech, Czech-English Dictionary by J. Fronek, Leda, 1998 [Thomas Leigh]

Danish: åsyn (countenance) -- Standard Danish Dictionary, Holt Rinehart & Winston (Scandinavian sort order)

Dutch: zwoerd, zwoord (bacon rind) -- Hippocrene Standard Dictionary; zzz (an imitation of a buzzing sound (e.g. as with bees)) -- Van Dale's Groot Woordenboek der Nederlandse Taal [Maarten van Beek]

Egyptian (Middle): [ddkw] (canal(?), channel (?)) -- A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian. Raymond O. Faulkner: Griffith Institute [with thanks to Sylvia and Charlotte Miles]

Estonian: üürnik (tenant) -- Sonastik Dictionary, eesti-inglise (Scandinavian sort order)

Faeroese: øvundarorð (word which expresses envy) -- Føroysk-Donsk Orðabók, M.A. Jacobsen & Chr. Matras (Scandinavian sort order)

Fijian: yota (yacht) -- New Fijian Dictionary, Capell 1968 [Roger Mills]

Finnish: öylätti (wafer; host) -- Standard Finnish Dictionary, Holt Rinehart & Winston (Scandinavian sort order)

French: zymotique (zymotic, of fermentation) -- The Concise Oxford French Dictionary compiled by Abel and Marguerite Chevalley, 1954 [Andrew Smith]

Frisian (Fehring): würtelk (real) -- Snaak Friisk! Interfriisk Leksikon, V. Tams Jörgensen

Frisian (Halunder): wuune (live) -- Snaak Friisk! Interfriisk Leksikon, V. Tams Jörgensen

Frisian (Mooring): wüset (woman) -- Snaak Friisk! Interfriisk Leksikon, V. Tams Jörgensen

Frisian (Sölring): wunerk (strange) -- Snaak Friisk! Interfriisk Leksikon, V. Tams Jörgensen

Frisian (West): wurpst ([thou] threw) -- Afûk Frysk-Ingelsk Wurdboek; most Frisian dictionaries sort the letter y in with the letter i, so words beginning with y don't come at the end of the dictionary; however the following comes from a dictionary which sorts y after w: yslik (horrible) -- Frisian-English Dictionary / Frysk-Ingelsk Wurdboek. Raymond John Fisher, 1986 [Benjamin Bruch]

Gaelic (Scottish): utras (confusion) -- Acair Aup Gaelic Dictionary; x-ghathaich (to x-ray) -- Gaelic-English dictionary by Colin Mark, 2003 [Thomas Leigh]

Galician: zurrar (spank) -- Hippocrene Concise Galician Dictionary, J. Vikin

Georgian: [hunegi] (Huns) -- English-Georgian/Georgian-English Dictionary, T. & I. Gvarjaladze [with thanks to Simon Ager's Omniglot alphabets site for the webfont]

German: Zytotoxizität (the ability to damage cells) -- Duden Deutsches Universal Wörterbuch A-Z [Philip Newton]

[Mennonite Low] German: wuttentbleiw (livid) -- Kjenn Jie Noch Plautdietsch? A Mennonite Low German Dictionary By Herman Rempel:

[Old High] German: zwîval (doubt) -- Old High German glossary from Joseph Wright's An Old High German Primer, 1888 [with thanks to Sean Crist's Language Resources site]

Gothic: zelotes (zealot) -- Dictionary of Gothic by Moritz Heyne, included in Stamm, Heyne, and Wrede's Ulfilas, 1896 [with thanks to Sean Crist's Language Resources site]

Greek: [ôps] (the eye, face, countenance) -- Liddell-Scott Greek-English Lexicon [Daniel Seriff]

Greek (Modern): [okho'] (oho!) -- Oxford Greek-English Learner's Dictionary, D N Stavropoulos [Philip Newton]

Gypsy: zhushtuy (sister-in-law) -- Hippocrene Concise Gypsy Dictionary, Atanas Slavov [zh as a letter is sorted after z]

Hausa: (deep) -- Hippocrene Practical Dictionary

Hawaiian: (to bellow, roar) -- The Pocket Hawaiian Dictionary, Univ Hawaii Press [Anton Sherwood]

Hebrew: (substandard) -- Oxford Hebrew-English Dictionary

Hindi: hvai (archaic: became) -- Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary [Amber Adams] (Sanskrit sort order)

Hopi: yuyùyna (to bother, harm) -- Hopi Dictionary Project. 1998. Hopi Dictionary: A Hopi-English Dictionary of the Third Mesa Dialect. Tucson: University of Arizona Press [Dirk Elzinga]

Hungarian: (submit a painting etc to a panel of experts) -- Oxford Concise Hungarian-English Dictionary [zs as a letter is sorted after z]

Icelandic: öxulþungi (axleload) -- Íslensk - Ensk vasaorðabók, Orðabókaútgáfan (Scandinavian sort order)

Igbo: züö (buy, trade in, play a hand, make a wager in a game) -- Igbo-English Dictionary, Michael J.C. Echeruo, Yale University Press

Ik: zu(u)ku (very, much) -- Ik Dictionary, Bernd Heine, Rüdiger Köppe Verlag

[Proto-]Indo-European: yu- (you) -- Calvert Watkins, American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots [Muke Tever]

Indonesian: zurapah (giraffe) -- Echols & Shadily, Indonesian-English Dictionary 1965 [Roger Mills]

Irish (Irish Gaelic): (zoo) -- Collins Gem

[Old] Irish: utmallugud (act of wavering [verbal noun of utmallaigidir 'is, becomes unsteady, wavers']) -- Dictionary of the Irish Language Based Mainly on Old and Middle Irish Materials, Compact Edition. E. G. Quin, 1990 [Benjamin Bruch]

Italian: zuzzerellone, zuzzurullona (rollicking fellow or girl; tomboy; skittish) -- Cassell's Italian Dictionary

Japanese: [zutto] (by far, much more, all the time, throughout, all along, direct, straight, all the way) -- Japan Foundation Japanese-English dictionary (Latin alphabetic sort order) [D Tse]; [n] (short form of the particle "no") -- Oubunsha Hyoujun Kokugo Jiten () (gojuuonjun sort order) [Philip Newton]; [yaku; radical 214 + 0 extra strokes] (a kind of flute) -- Shin Jigen () (radical/stroke sort order) [Philip Newton]

Kawi (Old Javanese): (rattan) -- Kawi Lexicon, Wojowasito & Mills 1979 [Roger Mills] (Sanskrit sort order)

Kazakh: [yubka] (skirt) -- Routledge Dictionary of the Turkic Languages

Kyrgyz: [yanvar'] (January) -- Routledge Dictionary of the Turkic Languages

Latin: zothecula (cubicle) -- Collins Gem; zythum (a kind of malt liquor among the Egyptians - borrowing from Greek) -- A Latin Dictionary, Lewis & Short

Latvian: (to clank, jingle, rattle) --

Lithuanian: (quick, brisk, smart) -- Routledge Lithuanian Dictionary

Luxembourgish: Zylinder (top hat) -- 6000 Wierder op Lëtzebuergesch, Editions Saint-Paul, 2000 [Thomas Leigh]

Malagasy: zozozozo (a buzzing sound, or the whistling of the wind through the trees) -- Dictionnaire Malgache-Français, Abinal & Malzac 1970 [Roger Mills]

Maltese: (marriage, matrimony, nuptuals, wedding) -- Maltese-English, English-Maltese Dictionary, Colour Image, 1998 [Thomas Leigh]

Manx: dy yymmoosey (to make wroth or angry) -- Fockleyr ny Gaelgey, A. Cregeen

Maori: whutupaoro (football) -- Revised Dictionary of Modern Maori by PM Ryan [Andrew Smith]

Nahuatl: zozolotz(a) (to cause something to make a rumbling, roaring sound) -- Karttunen, Frances. 1983. An Analytical Dictionary of Nahuatl. Austin: University of Texas Press [Dirk Elzinga]

Ndonga: e/zuululo (new start from the beginning) -- Ndonga-English Dictionary, T.E. Tirronen

Niuean: (to howl) -- Tohi Vagahau Niue, Niue Language Dictionary [Philip Newton]

Norwegian (Bokmål and Nynorsk): åvokster (dial.: growth, also: cream on top of milk in a churn) -- Norsk riksmålsordbok, Kunnskapsforlaget and Nynorskordboka; also åzåtasjon ("loan-translation of Turkish 'züzuniyet', 'final word, conclusion' -- in philological jargon: concluding comment, last word") -- Hele Norges Leksikon, Hjemmets Bokforlag A/S [with thanks to Reidar Djupvik] (Scandinavian sort order)

Nuxalk: yuyucw (bracelet) -- A Concise Nuxalk-English Dictionary, H.F. Nater

Occitan: zoologia (zoology) -- Lexique Occitan-Français by Roger Barthe, 1988 [Thomas Leigh]

Paiute, Southern: -' (enclitic personal pronoun, you, singular subjective); or yurava (to be overcome - always in neg.: to be very powerful) -- Sapir, Edward. 1931. Southern Paiute Dictionary. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, vol 65: pp 297-535. [Dirk Elzinga]

Pilipino: yutyót (1. sound of heavy or violent but intermittent shaking (as of a house, tree branch, plank...) when burdened by heavy load or lashed by heavy wind or stream of water. 2. the act of bending under stress of weight or pressure) -- Diksiyunaryong Pilipino-Ingles (1970) [Roger Mills]

Polish: (fertile) -- Langenscheidt Pocket Polish Dictionary

Portuguese: zurzir (to lash, flog, maltreat, beat) -- Brockhaus Picture Dictionary, Portuguese-English

Romanian: zvoni (1. to be rumoured; 2. to murmur, to purl [whatever that means]) -- , 1965 [Thomas Leigh]

Russian: [yashchurnyy] (infected with foot-and-mouth disease) -- Oxford Russian-English Dictionary; also [Yaya] (a river in Yakutia) [Pavel Iosad]

Slovak: (chew) -- ("Slovak-Czech dictionary of different expressions"), published by SPN in 1963 [Thomas Leigh]

Slovene: (to whisk) -- Slovene-English Modern Dictionary by D. Komac, 1989 [Thomas Leigh]

Sorbian: (chewed) -- Obersorbisch-deutsches Wörterbuch by Filip Jakubaš, 1954 [Thomas Leigh]

Spanish: zuzón (groundsel) - El Pequeño Espasa (1988) [Martin Douch] and Diccionario de Uso del Español, María Moliner [Paul Cowan]

Swahili: zuzuliwa (to be made to look foolish) -- Hippocrene Practical Dictionary

Swedish: övärld (archipelago) -- Standard Swedish Dictionary, Holt Rinehart & Winston (Scandinavian sort order)

Tatar: [höjüm] (attack) -- Routledge Dictionary of the Turkic Languages

Tongan: (stranger) -- A Simplified Dictionary Of Modern Tongan [Philip Newton]; 'u'ulu (rumble, roar) -- Glossary of Intensive Course in Tongan, Eric B. Shumway (sorting ' as a separate letter after v) [Philip Newton]

Turkish: zürriyet (progeny, offspring) -- Langenscheidt Standard Turkish Dictionary; see also Norwegian (really)

Turkmen: [] (green) -- Routledge Dictionary of the Turkic Languages

Ukrainian: [yashchur] (foot-and-mouth disease) -- Hippocrene Standard Dictionary

Uzbek: [ho'kiz] (ox) -- Routledge Dictionary of the Turkic Languages

Veps: öläpak (bat) -- Vepsä-Englantilaine Vajehnik: (Scandinavian sort order)

Vietnamese: (having delicate health, weak-looking) -- Hippocrene Standard Vietnamese Dictionary [Editor's note: I'm not certain that I transcribed the diacritical marks correctly. Perhaps some kind soul could advise.]

Waray: yuyong (to give up without resistance) -- Waray-English Dictionary. George Dewey Tramp, Jr., 1995 [Benjamin Bruch]

Warlpiri: yuwurrku (mulga scrub, scrub) -- An Elementary Warlpiri Dictionary. Ken Hale, 1995 [Benjamin Bruch]

Welsh: ywen (yew tree) -- Y Geiriadur Bach (Pub. Christopher Davies); Zwinglïaidd (characteristic of the doctrine of the theologian Zwingli) -- University of Wales: Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru (Dictionary of the Welsh Language) [Andrew Hawke/Pavel Iosad]

Wembawemba: yurru-wil (moth) -- Wembawemba Dictionary. Luise A. Hercus, 1992 [Benjamin Bruch]

Wintu: (to fill the mouth with water to inflate the cheeks) -- Wintu Dictionary. Harvey Pitkin, University of California Press

Wolof: yuuy (very cold fog) -- Dictionnaire wolof-français. Fal, Santos, and Doneux, 1990 [Benjamin Bruch]

Xhosa: zwi, ili- and i- (a sound, a word, voice, speech, language) -- A New Concise Xhosa-English Dictionary. New edition. J. McLaren, 1963 [Benjamin Bruch]

Yoeme: yuyyuma (reach a point [reduplicated form of yuma, reach a point in time, attain a goal]) -- Yoeme-English English-Yoeme Standard Dictionary: A Language of the Yaqui Tribe in the American Southwest and Northern Mexico. With a Comprehensive Grammar of the Yoeme Language. David L. Shaul, 1999 [Benjamin Bruch]

Yorùbá: yunifásítì (university) -- Dictionnaire usuel yorùbá-français. Michka Sachnine, 1997 [Benjamin Bruch]

[Siberian] Yupik: yuvghiighyaghqaq (magazine) (last entry under the heading yuvghiigh- 'to examine, to inspect, to give a medical examination') -- A Dictionary of the St. Lawrence Island / Siberian Yupik Eskimo Language. Second Preliminary edition. Steven A. Jacobson et. al., 1987 [Benjamin Bruch]

[Central] Yup'ik: yuvrir- (to examine) -- Yup'ik Eskimo Dictionary. Steven A. Jacobson, 1984 [Benjamin Bruch]

Zapotec (San Lucas Quiaviní): zh:ye'mm (two statues representing evil placed just inside a church on Holy Thursday and Good Friday) -- Di'csyonaary X:tèe'n Dìi'zh Sah Sann Lu'uc / San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec Dictionary / Diccionario Zapoteco de San Lucas Quiaviní. Vol. I: Zapotec-English-Spanish Dictionary. Pamela Munro and Felipe H. Lopez, 1999 [Benjamin Bruch]

Zulu: Zwingili (Cabanis [or canabis] Weaver-bird) -- English-Zulu/Zulu-English Dictionary, Witwatersrand University Press; Zulu-English Vocabulary. CC. M. Doke, 1971 [Benjamin Bruch]

Constructed Languages

ámman îar: vurron (concern) -- ámman îar bethpárma (ámman îar Word Book) by i gurunaran demith aka The Gray Wizard, David Bell [David Bell]

Barakhinei: [zuth] (wicked) (Roman sort order); [hind] (pepper) (Barakhinei sort order) -- by Mark Rosenfelder [Philip Newton]

Cadhinor: [zuth] (wicked) (Roman sort order); [hindos] (pepper) (Cadhinor sort order) -- by Mark Rosenfelder [Philip Newton]

Cuêzi: [zobê] (sorcery) (Roman sort order); [vissiveyas] (recognition; celebration) (Cuêzi sort order) -- by Mark Rosenfelder [Philip Newton]

Dublex: zuphasal ([off+event] extinguishing, such as a light) -- [Jeffrey Henning]

Esperanto: zumi (to buzz) -- Nixon Esperanto Vocabulary, Butler's Esperanto-English Dictionary

Ilaini: jom ((over) there) (native ordering); zul (full) (Latin sort order) [Irina Rempt]

Interlingua: zym- (leaven, ferment (in compounds)) -- Interlingua-English Dictionary, IALA, 1951. [Thomas Leigh]

Ismaîn: [zyzr] (be fragrant, smell good) -- by Mark Rosenfelder (Roman sort order; 'z' is a separate letter sorting after 'z') [Philip Newton]

Itláni (formerly Drúni): zvúnya (avenge) -- The Itláni Language (Tá Itlálnit Shol) by James E. Hopkins, 2002. [Thomas Leigh]

Jameld: (oxygen) -- Jameld-English Dictionary

Kash: [otrosho] (ceramic ware, ceramic) [Roger Mills] (Kash alphabetic sort)

Kebreni: [z'ynu] (go) -- by Mark Rosenfelder (Roman sort order; z' is a separate letter sorting after z) [Philip Newton]

Klingon: 'u' (universe) -- Klingon Dictionary

Láadan: zhuth (piano) -- A First Dictionary and Grammar of Láadan, second edition, Suzette Haden Elgin. [Jessica P. Hekman]

Lojban: zy (the name of the letter 'z') -- [Philip Newton]

Novial: yuni (young) -- Novial Lexike by Otto Jespersen, George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1930 [Thomas Leigh]

Proto-Eastern: ghwo:ns (ball) -- by Mark Rosenfelder ('gh' sorts last in that list, after 'y') [Philip Newton]

Talossan: þüxheïn (hygeine) -- El Treisoûr del Glheþ Talossán, Secund Ediziun by R. Ben Madison, 1997. (Scandinavian sort order; þ follows z) [Thomas Leigh]

Verdurian: [zhuzhu] (stoned, drunk, high) (Roman sort order; 'zh' is a separate letter [actually z-with-caron] sorting after 'z'); [zhivesa] (liveliness, activity, sprightlyness) (Verdurian sort order) -- by Mark Rosenfelder [Philip Newton]

Volapük: züvegön (to drive about, to drive around) -- Dictionary of Volapük by M. Wood, 1889 [Thomas Leigh]

Wede:i : z'unwen (breast) -- by Mark Rosenfelder (Roman sort order; z' is a separate letter sorting after z) [Philip Newton]

Thanks to all who've contributed. Please forgive any errors or omissions!

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